SINGAPORE (Mar 11): The term VUCA (volatile, uncertain, complex and ambiguous) was first developed by the US Military to describe the uncertain conditions following the collapse of the Soviet Union and the rise of non-state threats.

In extremis leadership, also of military origin and based on research in Iraq, refers to conditions where followers believe that leaders can influence their well-being or survival.

Over the years, however, such terminology has been resonating with an increasing number of business leaders who are navigating the ever-changing economic climate and dealing with crises on a day-to-day basis.

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