On Dec 23, 2020, the government of Singapore announced that Singapore vaccines from Moderna, Pfizer-BioNTech and Sinovac Biotech have been purchased. The Pfizer-BioNTech vaccine needs to be stored at temperatures of minus-70 degrees Celsius (–70°C), which cannot be attained by ordinary freezers. Moderna’s vaccine is a little less demanding and can be stored in freezers of –20°C.

These vaccines need to be transported and stored in ultra-freezers and freezers. On the other hand, the AstraZenecaOxford vaccine can be stored at a regular refrigerator temperature of between 2°C and 8°C, just like flu vaccines. That means they can be transported in cool containers. They are more affordable than the Pfizer and Moderna vaccines and are probably more appropriate for emerging markets.

Even then, shipping these vaccines is a challenge, and logistics companies will have to rely on temperature-controlled unit load devices to meet Iata’s strict temperature control regulations. Used properly, these cool containers prevent the cargo from exposure to higher or lower temperatures than permitted.

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