In Stanley Kubrick’s film 2001: A Space Odyssey, an AI computer called HAL 9000 controls a spacecraft bound for Jupiter. The pleasant and seemingly subservient HAL soon begins to think independently of its human creators and turns against the crew, who have to fight for their lives against the computer.

Have a premium account? Sign in to continue reading.

Unlimited access to all stories from $99.9/year*

The latest reporting and analysis from business and investments to news and views on social issues.


  • Simultaneous logins across all devices
  • Instant access to past digital issues
  • Unlimited access to The Edge Malaysia
  • *For annual subscription plan only. T&Cs apply